Psychometrics of the Self-efficacy for Exercise Memory Questionnaire (SEEM-Q) and associations with self-efficacy beliefs for exercise and memory
Memory functioning has been associated with physical activity engagement across the lifespan. Domain-specific memory may be even more critical for sustained engagement, such as remembering public health recommendations, how to properly perform movements or modifications, and when and how to evaluate progress. In the absence of an assessment of exercise-specific memory functioning, a self-efficacy for exercise memory-questionnaire (SEEM-Q) was developed and assessed at baseline and one-month follow-up, in the context of an exercise trial (N=233 middle-aged adults, 65.6% women). The purpose of this study was to assess the SEEM-Q’s psychometrics and explore domain-specificity of exercise memory beliefs and functioning. Covariance modeling was conducted using Mplus 8.6. A hierarchical structure with three exercise memory self-efficacy factors (AERO, STREN, & FLEX) fit the data (χ2=20.55 (df=15), p=.152; CFI=.996, RMSEA=.040; λ’s=.80-.95) with good model-based reliability (ω2=.91-.95) and temporal invariance (CFIΔ=.001). Expected correlation patterns with 95% confidence intervals were found among all composite scores with established measures of self-efficacy. Specifically, positive correlations were found with self-efficacy to adhere to exercise and overcome barriers to exercise, and confidence in one’s spatial memory ability (via Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire) and preventing memory decline (subscales of the Memory Controllability Index [MCI]), but not with present memory ability (via MCI subscale or Frequency of Forgetting) or generic memory preservation strategies (via Metamemory Questionnaire). Interestingly, AERO, STREN, and FLEX were associated with faster reaction time performance (even after adjusting for known covariates), but not with working memory performance via Sternberg task. Findings offer initial evidence for the SEEM-Q’s psychometric properties. Future research is needed to elucidate the factors that influence confidence in one’s memory about exercise, and the relationship between generic and domain-specific memory beliefs and functioning.Mullen, S. P., Phansikar, M., Taggart, A., Thomas, D. D., Kramer, A. F., & McAuley, E. (in review, May 2022). Psychometrics of the Self-efficacy for Exercise Memory Questionnaire (SEEM-Q) and associations with self-efficacy beliefs for exercise and memory. Annual meeting for the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport & Physical Activity. Waikoloa Beach, Hawaii.
Primary outcomes of the Cognitive Regulation Training and Exercise (CORTEX)-II trial: Effects on physical activity engagement.
The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to test the effectiveness of a multimodal cognitive training program for increasing physical activity engagement among middle-aged adults. Low-active adults (N=233; Mage=46.7) predominantly non-Hispanic (92.3%), White (81.1%), female (65.6%) with a college degree (74.7%) were recruited to participate in a 13-month study. Participants completed a battery of assessments (psychosocial, neuropsychological, & physical functioning) at baseline and subsequently were randomly assigned to receive 20 hours of cognitive training via Games (stationary computerized tasks emphasizing executive functioning and exerciser self-certainty, and exergaming with dual-task components; n=118) or attention-control health educational Videos (n=115). Training was split across five 2-hr lab sessions (overall adherence=98.3%), followed by five 2-hr home sessions. Among Games, 81.4% fully complied with our exergaming protocol (lab & home) and 88.4% completed the cognitive training protocol. Video engagement was assessed via accuracy to attentional checks (82% in lab & home). The primary outcome was physical activity engagement (PAE), a latent factor based on physical activity steps & moderate intensity minutes derived from yearlong Fitbit step recordings, visitations & self-report). As hypothesized, Bayesian multiple-indicator, multiple-cause model analysis indicated a significant group effect (PAE score M±SD is 4.20±1.02 in Games and 3.77±0.92 in Videos; Cohen’s d=0.19, p= 0.03) after adjusting for a set of background variables. Based on 58.4% respondents to our study evaluation survey, 87.3% enjoyed their assigned intervention; 97.1% would recommend it. Only 4.1% of study completers guessed the study’s true purpose. Results associated with hypothesized mechanisms of behavior change, including cognitive functioning and psychosocial outcomes, will be discussed. Our findings replicated our previous trial, and show reliable effects for promoting exercise engagement within an unsupervised community-based exercise program for middle-aged adults.Mullen, S. P., Shen, S., Phansikar, M. P., Taggart, A., Thomas, D. D., Lussier, M., Kramer, A. F., & McAuley, E. (in review, May 2022). Primary outcomes of the Cognitive Regulation Training and Exercise (CORTEX)-II trial: Effects on physical activity engagement. Annual meeting for the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport & Physical Activity.
Feasibility and impact of a remote flow-based, moderate-intensity yoga intervention on executive functioning, during a pandemic, among working adults
Low-intensity yoga benefits cognitive function but less is known about the effects of flow-based moderate-intensity forms of yoga on cognitive functioning. There is growing consensus among researchers for the need to exploring the effects of different yoga styles and components. The SUNRAE study was designed to test the feasibility and initial efficacy of an 8-week flow-based, moderate-intensity yoga intervention (3x/week, 50 mins) to improve cognitive functioning with sequences of postures and guided breathing exercises (vs. a waitlist control arm). This randomized controlled trial included 86 full-time working adults (81.40% female; Mage=41 years, n=43 in each group) with symptoms of stress. Supervision was titrated from remote individual and group instructional sessions to self-guided video sessions. Feasibility was assessed via adherence (verified via Fitbit activity and post-session logs), enjoyment, and adverse events. Executive functioning was assessed via forward and backward digit span, Stroop task, and a task-switching paradigm at baseline and post-intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance, accounting for baseline scores, education, fitness and physical activity, prior yoga and exercise experience, and outcome expectancies was conducted. Overall attendance was 75.10% (supervised=97.15% vs. self-guided=63.50%), 100% of participants enjoyed the intervention, and there was one adverse event. The yoga group had higher accuracy on digit span forward and backward (Ms±SD = 7.30±3.05 vs. 6.11±2.70) after accounting for covariates; other improvements did not reach statistical significance. Mediation analysis revealed that change in perceived stress from baseline to mid-point of the intervention partially mediated the effect of the intervention on backward digit span (β = .203, SE = .112, p = .034). These results suggest that regular flow-based yoga at moderate intensity may improve working memory, in part through stress reduction. Remote flow-based yoga practice may be safe, enjoyable, and increase accessibility to yoga and its health benefits.Phansikar, M., Gothe, N., Hernandez, R., Lara-Cinisomo, S., & Mullen, S. P. (in review, May 2022). Feasibility and impact of a remote flow-based, moderate-intensity yoga intervention on executive functioning, during a pandemic, among working adults. Annual meeting for the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport & Physical Activity. Waikoloa Beach, Hawaii.
Academic Year 2020-21